Technology readiness levels

Technology readiness levels

TRL 1 – Basic principles observed and reported: Scientific research results allow commencing applied research and technology development.  

TRL 2 – Technology concept and/or application formulated.

TRL 3 – Experimental proof of concept: Active research and development is initiated (analytical/laboratory studies) to validate analytical predictions of separate elements of the technology.

TRL 4 – Technology validation in laboratory environment: Basic technological components are integrated to establish that they will work together in the laboratory environment.  

TRL 5 – Technology validation in relevant environment: Technological components are integrated with reasonably realistic supporting elements so they can be tested in a simulated environment.

TRL 6 – Technology demonstration in relevant environment: A representative model or prototype is tested in a simulated environment.

TRL 7 – System prototype demonstration in operational environment: System prototype near or at planned operational system tested in an operational environment.

TRL 8 – System completed and qualified: Technology has been proven to work in its final form and under expected conditions (the last stage of technology development).

TRL 9 – Successful operation of the system.

  • Fundamental research generally corresponds to Technology Readiness Level 1;
  • Industrial research generally corresponds to Technology Readiness Levels 2–4;
  • Experimental development generally corresponds to Technology ReadinessLevels 5–8.